Personal protective equipment, staff safety and security
Personal protective equipment, staff safety and security
This page provides information on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also includes information on wider measures that can be used to protect staff and guidance on the personal safety of pharmacy staff.
If you are looking for information on testing for pharmacy staff or support tools to assist with staff health and wellbeing, please visit our Staff wellbeing and COVID-19 testing page.
Use of PPE in community pharmacies (including face masks)
Public Health England (PHE) and the other UK public health bodies, alongside the NHS, published the following guidance on Friday 21st August 2020:
This supersedes the previous guidance issued on 18th June 2020 and separate advice on the use of PPE when administering vaccines, issued by PHE and NHS England and NHS Improvement (NHSE&I).
The infection prevention and control (IPC) principles in the guidance apply to all health and care settings, including acute, mental health and learning disabilities, primary care (including community pharmacies) and care homes.
The guidance says patients’ treatment, care and support is to be managed in three COVID-19 pathways:
High risk: There is no change in recommendations for IPC or for the use of PPE by staff when managing patients who have, or are likely to have, COVID-19.
Medium risk: This includes patients who have no symptoms of COVID-19 but do not have a COVID-19 SARS- CoV-2 PCR test result. Most patients visiting pharmacies will fall within this pathway.
Low risk: Patients with no symptoms and a negative COVID-19 SARS- CoV-2 PCR test who have self-isolated prior to admission to hospital.
In the guidance, sessional use of single use PPE items has been minimised and only applies to extended use of facemasks for healthcare workers.
The use of face masks (for staff) or face coverings is recommended (where face coverings are not legally required) in addition to social distancing and hand hygiene for staff, patients and visitors in both clinical and non-clinical areas to further reduce the risk of transmission.
Physical distancing of 2 metres is considered standard practice in all health and care settings.
The following use of PPE is recommended in community pharmacies, dependent on the individual circumstances:
|Pharmacy staff interactions with patients||Staff are working in an area with possible or confirmed cases and are unable to maintain 2 metres social distance from the patients.||Sessional use of a Type IIR face mask (Fluid Resistant Surgical Mask). One session could be a half day period of time, with a new mask being used after a break from work.|
|Pharmacy staff interactions with patients||Staff are providing direct care to a patient, where there is a possibility of the patient being infected with COVID-19 and there is (anticipated) exposure to blood/body fluids or non-intact skin.||Disposable plastic apron (single use), Type IIR mask (single use or sessional) and gloves (single use) should be worn.|
|Pharmacy staff interactions with patients||Staff are providing direct care to a patient, where there is a possibility of the patient being infected with COVID-19 but there is NO (anticipated) exposure to blood/body fluids or non-intact skin, e.g. administering vaccines.||
Sessional use of a Type IIR face mask (Fluid Resistant Surgical Mask). One session could be a half day period of time, with a new mask being used after a break from work.
Apply hand-hygiene measures between patients.
|Staff working in the pharmacy, e.g. in the dispensary, with other colleagues||The pharmacy is not COVID-19 secure, because staff cannot maintain a social distance from one another at all times.||
A Type I or Type II face mask should be worn to prevent the spread of infection from the wearer.
If Type IIR face masks are more readily available, and there are no supply issues for their use as PPE, then these can be used as an alternative to Type I or Type II masks.
The use of face masks and other PPE does not remove the need for other measures to help to protect staff, patients and the public and contractors should ensure that all appropriate and relevant steps continue to be taken to make the pharmacy COVID-19 secure.
The Government’s PPE portal can be used by community pharmacies to obtain all the COVID-19 personal protective equipment (PPE) they need; the supplies will be provided free of charge.
The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) has partnered with eBay, Clipper Logistics and Royal Mail to develop this service.
How can I access the portal?
Community pharmacies will have received an email invitation to register to access the service, which will have been sent to their NHSmail shared mailbox (the email address of which is in this format: nhspharmacy.location.pharmacynameODScode@nhs.net).
If you cannot find the email, you can still create an account by visiting the portal and using your NHSmail shared mailbox email address to register.
What can be ordered?
Pharmacies can use the portal to meet the extra need for PPE that has arisen as a direct result of the COVID-19 pandemic. You should not use the portal to order PPE for non-COVID-19 requirements; this should be ordered through your normal supply channels.
Pharmacies can order:
- Type II masks;
- Type IIR masks;
- Gloves; and
- Hand sanitiser.
The current weekly order limits for pharmacies are listed on the GOV.UK website; the more staff a pharmacy has, the larger the quantity of PPE that can be ordered each week.
DHSC are keeping order limits under review to make sure they reflect the latest public health guidance, COVID-19 demand modelling and analysis.
Delivery times and cost
PPE ordered from the portal is free of charge and orders will be delivered by Royal Mail within 4 days. Some orders will require more than one box and may be received as multiple deliveries.
All PPE offered on the portal meets UK Government quality standards.
You can find more information on PPE standards at Public Health England’s COVID-19 PPE hub and NHS guidance on supply and use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and other supplies.
Question or queries
Call the customer service team on 0800 876 6802 if you have any questions about using the PPE portal.
The team is available from 7am to 7pm, 7 days a week, to help resolve your queries.
Funding for previously purchased PPE
Contractors have previously purchased PPE from pharmacy wholesalers and other suppliers prior to stock becoming available via the Government’s PPE portal. PSNC has been capturing the cost of PPE that a sample of contractors have been purchasing and we are discussing with Government a process for reimbursement of those costs to all contractors.
Face coverings - use by patients and customers
From 24th July 2020, people in shops, including community pharmacies, are required by law to wear a face covering (subject to some exemptions).
Key aspects of the new Health Protection (Coronavirus, Wearing of Face Coverings in a Relevant Place) (England) Regulations 2020 include:
- It is not compulsory for a member of staff in a shop to wear face coverings (but see also the above guidance on use of PPE in pharmacies);
- Certain people are exempt from the requirements, for example, children under the age of 11;
- There are reasonable excuses for not wearing a face covering, which include a person who cannot put on, wear or remove a face covering because of any physical or mental illness or impairment, or because of a disability within the meaning of the Equality Act 2010, or those who cannot put on, wear or remove a face covering without severe distress;
- If asked by a pharmacy staff member, a person in the pharmacy may remove their face covering in order to assist in the provision of healthcare or healthcare advice;
- A face covering can be removed to take medication, e.g. to consume methadone in a pharmacy; and
- Where a relevant person, such as a police constable or police community support officer, considers that a person who should wear a face covering is not wearing one, he or she may direct that person not to enter the relevant place, or direct that person to wear a face covering, or direct that person to leave the premises.
The liability for wearing a face covering is with the individual, not the retailer. Contractors may want to use the posters and social media statics which are available in PHE’s Campaign Resource Centre to help remind patients of the requirement.
Contractors’ terms of service provide that a pharmacy may refuse to provide medicines and appliances on prescription if a person commits or threatens to commit a criminal offence. The police have formal enforcement powers and can issue fines for people refusing to comply with the face covering legislation, and the Government has indicated that retailers could refuse entry to people refusing to wear a face covering.
However, contractors must think carefully about the appropriateness of resorting to enforcement options. If a person is not wearing a face covering, it may be difficult to determine if a relevant exemption applies, and in any event, the health needs of the patient or customer should also be considered; this is particularly relevant in healthcare settings, such as pharmacies.
Social Distancing and Infection Control risk management
Social distancing, alongside installation of bollards/tapes, physical barriers or screens is considered to be the most effective way of protecting pharmacy staff. PSNC recommends that contractors do install screens on medicines counters, wherever this is possible.
All pharmacies have already put in place arrangements to support social distancing and to reduce the risk of spread of infections, but as the progress of the pandemic continues, it is clear that we will all need to maintain social distancing and COVID-19 related infection control processes for many months to come.
As the pandemic continues and we all get used to living and working in a “new normal” situation, people’s consciousness of the need to maintain social distances at all times may reduce and consequently new or additional measures at each pharmacy may need to be taken to ensure distancing is maintained on an ongoing basis.
Risk assessment template
PSNC has published a risk assessment template will help pharmacy teams to identify further potential changes which could be made to their pharmacy environment or procedures during the pandemic to increase the safety of staff and patients.
The Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Group has developed guidance on the safe use of consultation rooms during the pandemic, to help pharmacy teams consider how they can minimise risk when using them: Safe use of consultation rooms: COVID-19
Handling medicines returned for disposal
The National Pharmacy Association, PSNC, Royal Pharmaceutical Society and the Community Pharmacy Patient Safety Group have jointly issued guidance for pharmacy teams on handling medicines returned for disposal during the pandemic:
Individual staff risk assessments
NHSE&I requested all NHS providers, including pharmacy contractors, to complete individual risk assessments for at least staff in at-risk groups (including Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) staff) by 24th July 2020.
A letter from NHSE&I outlines the responsibilities of employers as well as the support available to help them, including an annex highlighting examples of good practice.
Support on undertaking staff risk assessments is available from the following organisations:
- NHS England and NHS Improvement (NHSE&I) – also see their webinar for community pharmacy
- NHS Employers
- Faculty of Occupational Medicine
- General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC)
- National Pharmacy Association (NPA)
- Pharmacists’ Defence Association
- Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS)
PSNC is concerned about the higher COVID-19 risks identified for BAME individuals, particularly those who work in the healthcare sector, and we support the need for these risk assessments, particularly for those people who are in more vulnerable groups.
Security and personal safety
During the outbreak, there have been reports of security incidents at community pharmacies, including a very few where those attending a pharmacy have been abusive to staff. Therefore, while you may be tempted to try – for very short periods – to operate community pharmacies with a pharmacist alone due to staff having to leave unexpectedly, PSNC would urge you not to do so and to always ensure there is a minimum of two pharmacy staff the premises at all times.
Contractors are also reminded that as supermarkets and others increasingly prioritise NHS staff over other customers, NHS or other forms of identification can become targets for theft and should be kept safe and not on display.
PSNC and the other national pharmacy bodies have had discussions with senior police representatives regarding the safety of community pharmacy teams and premises during the pandemic. The National Police Chiefs’ Council has issued the following guidance for community pharmacy teams:
LPCs may also be able to raise any security concerns with local police forces and the Police and Crime Commissioner.